Audubon’s younger son, John, may have assisted on this drawing, which was probably done during the winter of 1833-34 in Charleston. The red bird at bottom is an adult male; above him is an adult female; and the topmost bird is an immature grosbeak. In his text, Audubon wrote that his son brought back a number of these birds from Newfoundland. “It was curious to see how covered with sores the legs of the old birds of both sexes were. These sores or excrescences are, I believe, produced by the resinous matter of the fir-trees on which they obtain their food…and I of such an inconvenience.” The male bird is shown with these sores, and beneath the bird Audubon instructed the engraver, “pay attention to make diseased legs!” The branch appears to be that of a scrub pine or a shortleaf pine.